Carbonation (the process of adding dissolved carbon dioxide to water) was first discovered in 1767 by Joseph Priestley, who called it the “fixed air”.
In 1772, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier suggested that this might be an element. When benzoate is mixed with citric acid and heated (Carbonated beverage), a reaction occurs and bubbles form. Carbonic acid is produced and dissolves in the water to form carbonates and bicarbonates.
It wasn’t until 1806 when Heinrich Jacob Schweppenhäuser tried to capture this gas to make artificial pearls but captured seltzer instead. As such he invented the soda water bottle we know today.